Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

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Yay! Hoje é feriado nacional! Não aqui no Brasil! Mas, lá nos States. Isso mesmo! Hoje é feriado lá na terra do Uncle Sam. Eles hoje celebram o Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, geralmente abreviado para MLK Day. Portanto, que tal ler um texto sobre Martin Luther King e o feriado dedicado a ele? No final do texto abaixo, há algumas perguntas para testar  sua compreensão do mesmo. [Se você é professor(a) de inglês e deseja utilizar este texto em suas aulas, baixe o arquivo PDF referente a ele clicando aqui. Por favor, não altere o arquivo e sempre indique a fonte. O Inglês na Ponta da Língua conta com sua ajuda.]

Martin Luther King, Jr. Day

Martin Luther King Day is a federal holiday held on the third Monday of January. It celebrates the life and achievements of Martin Luther King Jr., a Baptist minister and social activist who played a key role in the American civil rights movement from the mid-1950s until his assassination in 1968.

Martin Luther KingRev. Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. was born on January 15, 1929 in Atlanta, Georgia.  He was the son of a pastor and, just like his father, he also wanted to be a pastor. He studied Theology in several institutions and in 1947 he was ordained. However, he just became minister of a Baptist Church in 1954.

King’s civil right career started in 1955 when he led the Montgomery Bus Boycott, a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. In 1957, he organized the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), which gave him a base to pursue further civil-rights activities, first in the South and later nationwide.

He helped to organize the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which took place on Wednesday, August 28, 1963. This event was one of the most influential political rallies for human rights in United States history and called for civil and economic rights for African Americans. It was on this day that Martin Luther King delivered his most famous speech: “I Have a Dream“. In this 17-minute speech, King called for an end to racism in the United States.

Due to Martin Luther King’s constant work on combating racial inequality through nonviolence, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964. On April 4, 1968, he was shot and killed as he stood on the balcony of the Lorraine Motel – now a National Civil Rights Museum – in Memphis, Tennessee.

The idea of Martin Luther King, Jr. Day as a holiday was promoted by labor unions in contract negotiations. At first, the idea of a national holiday to honor a private citizen was considered contrary to America’s longstanding tradition. After a lot of debates, the Martin Luther King, Jr. Day was approved in 1983 but it was first observed on January 20, 1986. At first, some states resisted observing the holiday as such, giving it alternative names or combining it with other holidays. It was officially observed in all 50 states for the first time in 2000.

On Martin Luther King Day (MLK Day) small companies, such as grocery stores and restaurants tend to be open, although a growing number are choosing to close on this day. Recent federal legislation encourages Americans to give some of their time on Martin Luther King Day as volunteers in citizen action groups.

Teste Sua Compreensão

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  1. Anualmente, quando o Martin Luther King Day é celebrado nos Estados Unidos?
  2. Qual era a profissão do pai de Martin Luther King, Jr.?
  3. Quando ele realmente se tornou pastor em uma igreja?
  4. Em que ano teve início a luta de Martin Luther King pelos direitos civis nos Estados Unidos?
  5. Qual foi o primeiro movimento liderado por ele?
  6. Em qual movimento (evento) ele proferiu seu mais famoso discurso?
  7. Qual foi o principal tema desse discurso?
  8. Que prêmio ele recebeu no ano de 1964?
  9. Quatro anos após ele receber esse prêmio, o que aconteceu com Martin Luther King?
  10. O local no qual ele foi assassinado é o que hoje em dia?
  11. Inicialmente, por que muitas se colocaram contra ao Martin Luther King Day como um feriado nacional?
  12. Em que ano foi aprovado a ideia de tornar em feriado nacional o Martin Luther King Day?
  13. Em que ano todos os 50 estados americanos passaram a observar o Martin Luther King Day como um feriado nacional?
  14. Que tipos de comércios costumam abrir neste dia?
  15. O que as recentes leis federais americanas incentivam a população a fazer nesse feriado?

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Aprenda Mais

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  • Raphael

    it´s normal ? first i need to read the text and then i can answer some questions but i need
    to read again, because some questions i forget. kkkkk

  • Rubi

    I need too, Rafael. kkkkkkkkkk

  • morgana

    Denilso, tem um errinho no final da folha do pdf. falta o "da" de "indicada".
    Bjs

    • http://www.inglesnapontadalingua.com.br Denilso de Lima

      Thanks Morgana! Vou dar uma olhada e atualizar o arquivo! 😉

  • http://www.ourosurf.cz.cc JoseAlves

    Not bad! You are very good in English. I understood most of speech. I believe that can achieve 70 per cent in average.
    Go ahead to success in English learning.

  • Giovani

    I'm studying english about five months by myself. This sitio to have been perfect for me. I think that to learn some thing if i studying about three hours per day, during two years.
    Thanks, Denilson.

    • http://www.inglesnapontadalingua.com.br Denilso de Lima

      Thanks Giovani! :)

  • Wellington Matos

    Olá Denilson! o que siginifica "five scores years ago"? o mesmo que five years ago? esta no trecho :
    "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand signed the Emancipation Proclamation. "

    • http://www.inglesnapontadalingua.com.br Denilso de Lima

      Wellington,

      "Score", neste caso, representa um grupo de 20. Portanto, "five score years ago" significa "100 anos atrás".

      😉

  • llevvi

    Hey :)
    A friend spoke to me about your blog around 2 years ago.. Since that I've learned a lot here! Some days ago I bought your "the black book of phrasal verbs" – and it's amazing!
    Thanks!

    • http://www.inglesnapontadalingua.com.br Denilso de Lima

      Thanks Leandro! Glad to know that we've been helping you. :)

  • Thales Novaes

    Hi guys, can you help me with this sentence from the text: “played a key role in the American” I din’t understand.
    Thanks

    • denilsolima

      Hi, Thales! The whole sentence (chunk) is “played a key role in the American civil rights movement”.

      “Play a key role in” means “ter/desempenhar um papel importante/fundamental em”. So, the whole sentence (chunk) will be translated as “desempenhou um papel fundamental no movimentos dos direitos civis americanos”.

      😉

      • Thales Novaes

        Hey Denilso thank you 😀

  • Fernanda

    I was watching the Montgomery Bus Boycott Documentary, but I couldn´t understand the sentence that comes right after “just because she refused to give up a seat”, at 37 seconds of the video. Could you please help me out?

    • denilsolima

      Fernanda,

      That sentence means, “só porque ela não cedeu o assento”. Lembre-se que os negros tinham um local apropriado para sentar nos ônibus e quando um branco entrasse, o negro deveria ceder o assento para o branco. A confusão toda começou “só porque ela não cedeu o assento”.

      😉

      • Fernanda

        Desculpe se não me expressei bem, mas o que eu não entendi foi a frase SEGUINTE a “just because she refused to tive ou a seat”. Eu não entendi o que foi dito em inglês. Coulomb you help me, please!?

Denilso 21/01/2013
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